2mm scale companion site to 15mm Madness

Corps Level Rules

Core Rules

Rules Summary

Revision History





30 Oct 2011

First Draft


8 Nov 2011



22 Nov 2011

C2 rules explained

Started expanding the combat mechanics section.

Touched on the 'medals' system

    1.    Gaming System Summary

    1. Introduction
    2. Game scales
    3. Basing
    4. Mechanics summary
    5. Quick Reference Sheets

    2.    Game Setup

    1. Gaming Equipment

    2. Table Setup
    3. Creating an army
      1. Command Structure
      2. Divisional Troop Grades
      3. Unit Types
      4. Organisation

    4. Scenario information
    5. Initial Deployment
    6. Starting the Game

    3.    Playing the Game

    • Turn Sequence
    • Command Control - Orders and PIPs

    • Start of Day procedure
    • Phase of Day procedure
    • Initiative

    • Divisional PIP expenditure

    • Corps PIP expenditure
    • Battle Damage, Morale, Refit and Supply

    4.    Game Mechanics

    • Terrain Effects

    • Battlefield Defences

    • Movement
    • Spotting

    • Ranged Fire
    • Assault Combat
    • Indirect fire support (Artillery / Mortar / HMG)
    • Air superiority
    • Air to Ground attacks
    • Anti Aircraft fire
    • Airborne Assault
    • Partizan Warfare

    5.   Campaign Rules

    • Creating a Campaign
    • Start of Week Procedure
    • Minor Contacts - probing attacks
    • Supply
    • Major Contacts - generating a battle scenario from the Campaign
    • Civilian involvement,  martial law / civil administration of
      occupied territories

    6.   Extended Rules - WW2++ / Post War / Modern Era Gaming

    • Chemical weapons
    • Night vision equipment
    • Electronic warfare
    • Improved Armour / Anti-Armour weapons
    • Assymetric Warfare

    • ATGMs
    • Helicopters
    • Irregular Hordes

    7.   Commander's Manual

    • Infantry Division Tactical Manual

    • Armoured Division Tactical Manual

    • Light Division Tactical Manual

    • Airforce Tactical Manual
    • Special Forces Tactical Manual

    1.    Gaming System Summary

    1.1   Introduction

    Large scale battles on the Eastern Front of WW2, 1 base = 1 battalion.

    At the small end - players command 1 or more Corps with several
    Divisions per Corps.

    At the larger end - players command Army groups with several Corps per

    Battles cover several days to a couple of weeks of a campaign, and can
    be resolved in single gaming session. 1-2 hours for a quick battle, or
    a whole weekend for something huge.

    Ideas, mechanics, and even TOEs shamelessly pinched from KISS Rommel /
    Megablitz / Hurrah Stalino / Pz8, etc ... with several new unique
    mechanics overlaid onto the rules.

    Gaming board divided into sectors, and all movement and ranging is by
    sectors. Depending on terrain availability, a 'Sector' can be anything
    from a 3"x3" square, 4" Hexagonal, or basically whatever you can get
    your hands on.

    I use 4" squares exclusively for my games.

    1.2   Game Scales

    1 Sector on the game table = 2km.

    Most troops engage with enemy units inside this range, and so fight
    with 'close assault' combat within the same sector. Note that 'close
    assault' combat, due to the ranges involved, still means shooting at
    each other from around 400-800m, as well as closing with grenades,
    panzerfausts and bayonets.

    Longer ranged combat (very good tank guns), can perform ranged fire
    into adjacent sectors, which represents long range shooting between
    1-2km range.

    Exceptionally long range direct fire can reach out to 2 sectors, which
    represents shooting at targets at a range of 2-3km in open ground.

    Time scale - each turn represents a phase of the day. Each day is
    divided into Dawn, Early, Noon, Late and Night. That equates to 4
    combat moves per day, plus an extra (Night) move for special events or
    emergency moves.

    Each base of tminiatures represents a Battalion of real troops. Due to
    the size of the real unit being modelled, it is important to consider
    that any base on the table may contains some elements of all combined

    For example an 'Infantry Battalion' with just foot soldier figures
    would usually be represented in real life as Hundreds of infantry, a
    few vehicles, mortars, HMGs, AT weapons, signals troops, HQ, and
    possibly even a tank or 2, etc. So 'infantry battalion' is used to
    denote the primary role of that base of figures.

    1.3   Basing

    I am only working here with 1/600 scale figures, so adjust your own
    stats accordingly.  The main mechanic effecting base sizing

    There are 2 types of base sizes used in this game.

    1) Main combat formations.   30mm x 20mm rectangular bases
    for these.

    2) Support units.

    1.4   Mechanics Summary

    1.5   Quick Reference Sheets

    2.    Game Setup

    2.1   Gaming Equipment

    2.2   Table Setup

    2.3   Creating an Army

    2.3.1   Command Structure

    2.3.2   Divisional Troop Grades

    Troop Grade CP Rating Attack Bonus Assault Bonus Initiative Bonus
    Regular 5 0 0 0
    Elite 7 +2 +2 +2
    Veteran 6 +1 +1 +1
    Fanatic 4 -1 +1 0
    Fanatic Veteran 6 +1 +2 +2
    2nd Rate 4 -1 -1 -1
    Assign a rating from the above which best describes the class of the
    whole Corps. Each rating is a composite rating that takes into account
    training, experience, and motivation.

    Each Division in the Corps then inherits that rating, although some
    attached Divisions may differ.

    Regular units represent a full strength unit of well equipped, trained
    conscript types with some battlefield experience.

    The 'Elite' rating should be reserved for special sub units only, and
    then only used very rarely.  It is assumed that units with Elite
    rating on the table top are smaller than non-elite units (say, at
    company strength instead of battalion strength), and are also armed
    with the best available equipment.

    Veteran units, will also represent somewhat understrength units. So a
    base of Veteran infantry may represent a couple of companies of
    hardened remnants. Professional, well led, and calm under fire.

    Fanatic units represent  highly motivated bands of volunteers,
    with average to poor weapons handling skills, and possibly quite a bit
    of battlefield experience .... although ideology is often more
    important to them than survival !

    Fanatic veteran units represent hard-core veteran volunteers operating
    somewhat understrength. These units are not only ideologically
    motivated, but also well disciplined and well equipped. Almost the
    equal of Elite units, just lacking their survivability on the

    CP rating = Combat Proficiency. This is the score required on a D10 to
    survive a 'hit'. It is also the score required to 'resurrect' a unit at
    the end of the day. Better trained, or experienced troops have a higher
    CP score, and so are more resillient, particularly over the course of
    several days of battle.

    Attack bonus = bonus added to die rolls when laying ranged fire on a
    target. Better trained or experienced troops shoot straighter.

    Assault Bonus = bonus added to die rolls when assaulting. Better
    trained or experienced units put down more effective fire in close
    assault combat.

    Fanatic units also get assault bonuses, which represents them taking
    more risks, or placing wildly higher volume of fire on a target.

    Initiative Bonus = bonus added to die rolls for Divisional initiative.
    Better trained or experienced Divisional staff are faster to react, and
    take the initiative.

    2.3.3   Unit Types

    Unit Firepower Armour Range Moves Assault

    Rifle Bn 4 - 3

    1 +1

    Motor Rifle Bn 4 - 3

    2 +1

    Armoured Rifle Bn 4 - 4 1

    2 +1

    Mortar / Inf Gun 2 - 2

    2 1 +1 Indirect Fire
    Support only

    AT gun 1 - 5

    1 1

    Direct fire only
    Heavy AT gun 1 - 7

    2 1

    Direct fire only
    Assault Bn 6 - 4

    1 +2 2 Attacks on first round of assault.
    Assault Gun
    2 - 2 2

    2 +2

    Light Tank 2 -4 1 1 2 +1

    Tank 2 - 5 2 1 2 +1

    Heavy Tank 2 - 6 3 2 1 +1

    HMG Coy 3 -2

    1 1 +1 Indirect Fire
    Support - non armoured

    Tank Destroyer 2 - 6 1 1 2

    Direct fire only
    Heavy Tank
    1 - 7 3 2 1

    Direct fire only
    Recon 2 - 2


    Spot out to range 3.
    Armoured Recon 3 - 3 1


    Spot out to
    range 3
    Field Gun 2 - 2

    4 1 / 2

    Indirect Fire Support only
    Heavy Artillery 2 - 2

    6 1 / 2

    Indirect Fire
    Support only
    Rocket 2 - 1

    7 1 / 2

    Seige Artillery 1 - 1

    9 1

    HQ 1 - 1

    3 +1

    Supply Dump 2 - 2

    1 +1

    Airfield 2 - 2

    1 +1

    Partizan / MP

    1 - 1

    1 +1

    Armed Hordes

    2 - 2


    In addition to troop grades, and troop type, some individual units may
    start the scenario with a 'Medal', which can be used to affect their
    performance during the game.

    2.3.4  Force Organisation

    There are simply hordes of known TOEs for this period.

    Have a look at the TOEs from other sets such as KISS Rommel, Hurrah
    Stalino, Pz8 Divisional, etc.

    Each side is made up of 1 or more Corps sized units, each containing a
    number of Divisions.

    In addition to the Divisions themselves, each Corps requires a separate
    Corps HQ base, Corps Heavy Artillery units, Supply Dump, and possibly a
    small Corps mobile reserve formation.

    2.4   Scenario Information

    2.5   Initial Deployment

    2.6   Starting the Game

    3.    Playing the Game

    3.1    Turn Sequence

    The game plays as a series of 'Days', within which there are a series
    of turns.

    Each Day begins with the Corps commanders issuing the plans for the day
    to their respective Divisions.

    After that, the day proceeds as a series of turns, representing :

    • Dawn
    • Early
    • Noon
    • Late
    • Night

    3.2    Command Control - Orders and PIPs

    3.3    Start of Day procedure

    At the start of each day, each Corps level commander rolls 1D6 for
    PIPs. The die roll is then modified depending on the initiative rating
    of the Corps formation (Elite +2, Vet +1, etc).

    Place a number of 'supply chits' next to the Corps HQ stand, as these
    can be spent through the day.

    Divisional orders can be changed only at the start of day (before the
    Divisions start their actions for the day), and these orders remain in
    effect for the remainder of the day.

    Each Division can be assigned one of the following orders, at the cost
    of 1 PIP :

    Order Description Deployment On Contact

    Defend Division will hold their sector, and assume all round defence
    posutre .. possibly digging in as well.

    Will generally remain in position, but may spend PIPs to
    re-position forces.

    May spend PIPs to dig in.

    Auto Return fire.

    Will stand ground if assaulted.

    Move Move at full
    speed in road column towards objective.

    Will assume
    road column formation (+1 move)

    No return fire.

    Will change to defend order if engaged.

    Will retire if assaulted.




    Advance in combat formation to seek out enemy.

    Will assume combat formation.

    Will advance to contact enemy.

    May spend PIPs to engage in ranged fire on spotted enemy forces.

    May spend PIPs to deploy to all round defence, retire from, or move
    around engaged enemy.

    Auto return fire.

    May engage with ranged fire. (1 PIP)


    May not initiate a new assault.

    May defend or retire  (no PIP).


    May initiate a new assault  at discretion of DHQ (2 PIPs)

    Attack Attack orders
    can only be issued against enemy units which are engaged at the start
    of the day. Advance in combat formation to engage and destroy enemy.

    Will assume
    combat formation

    Will advance to assault enemy.

    May spend PIPs to

    May spend PIPs to move in preparation of assault, or to enter a new

    Auto Return

    May either move units in preparation of assault (1 PIP), support of an
    existing assault (1 PIP), or may commit to a new assault. (2 PIPs)

    Support Advance in support of other Division.

    Will assume combat formation on flank of supported unit, and
    move in synch with supported unit.

    If supported unit is engaged, will move to engage enemy as well.

    May spend PIPs to move units when engaged.

    Auto Return fire.

    Will stand ground if assaulted.

    May move up to provide fire support support for other Division. (free)

    May enter into assault in support of other Division (2 PIPs)

    Reserve Division will
    disengage, resupply, refresh and prepare for new orders.

    Move in combat

    Form all round defence when clear of enemy.

    May return fire.

    Will retire if assaulted.

    If no PIPs are spent on a Division, their 'order of the day' remains
    unchanged from the day before. Note that the scenario should specify
    each Division's initial orders.

    Also, at the start of the day - Corps PIPs can be expended to shuffle
    assets around between Divisions.

    • For the cost of 1 PIP, up to 3 bases of units can be pulled from
      any Division back into the Corps reserve.
    • For the cost of 1 PIP, up to 3 bases of units can be assigned
      from Corps reserve to a Division.
    Any units re-assigned in this fashion are removed from the board, and
    are considered to be 'in-transit' for the rest of the day. They then
    re-appear on the table during the next start of day procedure, fresh
    and ready to go into action.

    If the Corps supply base or CHQ is lost during the day, then all
    in-transit units are deemed to have been lost as well.

    Remaining PIPs are then held in reserve, and can be spent during the
    rest of the day, if needed.

    In addition, each Division within the Corps rolls 1D6, and modifies the
    score by their
    initiative rating (+2 Elite, +1 Vet, etc). This is the Divisions PIPs
    for the rest of the day. Place a number of chits next to the DHQ equal
    to the PIP count.

    3.4    Phase of Day procedure

    There are 5 phases to the day, representing Dawn, Early, Noon, Late ...
    and Night.

    At the start of each phase of the day, each Division rolls 1D6, and
    modifies the score by their initiative rating (+2 Elite, +1 Vet, etc).
    This is their initiative rating for that phase of the day.  Keep
    the Modified die on the table next to the DHQ, to both display the
    number, and also to act as a counter to mark whether this Division has
    moved this turn or not.

    3.5    Initiative

    Divisions with the highest initiative score move first.

    In cases of a draw, movement is simultaneous. If that is too hard
    depending on the situation, then player's can decide to move their
    Divisions one group at a time.

    Each Division must now move according to their orders of the day.

    Any group of units from a Division in a single sector, which does not
    have any enemy units in an adjacent sector .. must perform a move
    before any PIPs are spent.

    Any group of units from a Division in a single sector, which is
    currently engaged due to enemy units in an adjacent sector .. can only
    perform actions or move as Divisional PIPs are spent.

    If a group of units from a Division contacts the enemy by moving into a
    sector adjacent enemy units, then that group of units halts. Further
    movement or actions such as ranged fire can only be performed by
    Divisional PIP expenditure.

    Contact Rule:

    - If units move into an engagement contact with the enemy (first
    sighting is from an adjacent sector), then the unit with the lower
    initiative score loses 1 PIP at Division level.

    3.6    Divisional PIP expenditure

    Divisional PIPs can be spent to :

    • Make any adjustment moves to units that are engaged.
    • Open a ranged fire attack on the enemy from all units in one
    • Fire Divisional level artillery in ranged fire.
    • Disengage from enemy contact

    • Extend defences in 1 sector.
    • Enter into a new assault.

    Example 1:

    Blue Force Division No 1 is on a reserve order. New orders of the day
    arrive to probe for enemy
    west of Krookwurst. They have 5 PIPs for the day.

    - At Dawn, units are re-arranged to place recon battalions up front,
    and motor rifles covering the flanks (no PIPs spent)

    - Early in the day, the Division advances forward to the West of
    Krookwurst. No contact, no PIPs spent.

    - At noon, the recon battalions run into Red force battalions advancing
    through woods in combat formation, 1 sector distant. Blue force has the
    higher initiative, so Red force loses 1 PIP. Blue force spends 1 PIP
    opening ranged fire on the enemy, and then takes the free option to
    disengage and retire 1 sector before the enemy can return fire.

    - Late in the day, Blue force still has 4 PIPs to spend, and they are
    disengaged from the enemy, and know their location.

    Example 2:

    Blue Force Division No 1 is on a reserve order. New orders of the day
    arrive to advance and engage
    any enemy west of Krookwurst. They have 5 PIPs for the day.

    - At Dawn, units are re-arranged to place armoured battalions up front,
    and motor rifles covering the flanks (no PIPs spent)

    - Early in the day, the Division advances forward. No contact, no PIPs

    - At noon, the armoured spearhead runs into Red force battalions
    defending the grounds to the West of Krookwirst, 1 sector distant. Blue
    force has the
    higher initiative, so Red force loses 1 PIP. Blue force spends 1 PIP
    opening ranged fire on the enemy, and then spends 1 PIP to continue the
    rest of the move, bringing up the assault troops.

    - Late in the day, the Blue force commander decides they can take the
    position on their own. 1 PIP is spent on ranged artillery fire, and 2
    remaining PIPs are spent initiating a new assault.

    3.7    Corps PIP expenditure

    At the END of any phase of the day, the Corps commander can intervene
    in events on the field, and expend any number of remaining Corps Level
    PIPS to :

    • Fire Corps level heavy artillery
    • Order an air attack on a sector
    • Scramble fighter cover to a sector

    - At Noon, A Blue Force Division on engage orders contacts the Red
    Force enemy at noon, and engages them with some success. By late
    afternoon, DHQ reports that they can take the position, and they intend
    to assault the enemy now.

    - Pleased at the agressive initiative shown by the Division, Blue Force
    Corps commander sends in the dive bombers to soften the enemy line and
    assist in the assault. (1 Corps PIP spent)

    - Red Force Corps commander decides to pitch in with a little help of
    his own, and orders Red Corps heavy rocket artillery to lay down fire
    on Blue Force attacking Division  (1 PIP), and also decides to
    scramble fighters to intercept the Blue Force dive bombers. (1 PIP)

    - Blue force commander looks on in horror - he forgot to order fighter
    cover for the dive bombers, and now he has no PIPs left to fix the
    situation. The dive bombers will be sitting ducks !

    3.8    Battle Damage, Morale, Refit and Supply

    All combat rules below follow this general principle :

    • The attacking combat factor is determined by the firepower rating
      of the firing unit vs the type of target. Firepower is expressed in
      terms of firepower vs soft targets, and firepower vs armoured
      targets.  So an infantry battalion with a firepower of 4-3 has a
      firepower of 3 against armour, and 4 against everything else. 
    • Attack combat factors can be modified up or down depending on the
      troop type. Eg - Veteran units receive a +1 attack bonus on ranged
      combat. This should be calculated as part of the scenario, so each
      Division should have a roster sheet that describes the units involved,
      and their combat factors that apply.

    • The attacking combat factor is modified upwards, receiving a +1
      bonus for each supporting unit in the attack, or for each indirect fire
      support received from MGs, nortars, or artillery.  
    • There are some special +2 combat factor bonuses for special
      occasions, such as assault troops being used in assault support, or
      dive bomber attacks on a defended sector, etc.

    • The attacker rolls D10 <= modified combat factor to score a
      hit. A natural 0 is always a miss.
    • If a unit is 'hit', it rolls D10 <= CP value to save and
      ignore the hit. If the defender rolls a natural 0, consult the
      catastrophic loss table.

    • Otherwise the unit is considered 'Disbursed', out of contact,
      ineffective until reformed.  Place this unit in a 'reserves' pile
      off table.

    • During the following start of day administration phase, for each
      unit in the reserves pile, roll D10 <= CP to recover the unit. Units
      with medals automatically recover at the end of day.  Recovered
      units are placed anywhere within 4 sectors of their respective
      Divisional HQ.

    Catastrophic Loss Table - Regular Units

    Die Roll



    +2 Elite

    +1 Veteran / Fanatic

    +0 Regular

    -1 2nd Rate


    or Natural 1

    Unit surrenders


    Unit annihilated


    Unit broken, ineffective for
    remainder of game


    Unit out of action for 2 days


    Unit out of action for 1 day


    or Natural 6

    Heroic recovery - unit reforms
    immediately within 1 sector. Unit is granted a Medal.

    Catastrophic Loss Table - Units with

    Die Roll



    No Modifier


    Unit fights to the last man,


    Stubborn defence, no effect


    Inspiring defence, unit gets a
    free return fire against the attacker.

    4.    Game Mechanics

    4.1    Terrain Effects

    4.2    Battlefield Defences

    4.3    Movement

    4.4    Spotting

    4.5    Ranged Fire

    Ranged fire is available to all units with a 'Range' value of 1 or
    more. Units with range 0 can only attack enemy units via the assault
    combat mechanism.

    Each ranged fire attack costs 1 Divisional PIP .. per sector of troops

    ie - For the cost of 1 PIP, all units within a given sector may fire on
    enemy units within range. In this case, multiple targets may be

    For each round of ranged combat between 2 adjacent forces, roll 1D6 +/-
    tmodifiers,  and consult the following table :




    +/- Difference in CP Ratings.

    +1 if attacker on Probe orders.

    -1 if defender on Defend orders.

    +1 for each indirect fire support for attacker

    -1 for each indirect fire support for defender

    +2 if defending sector is under ait attack


    Concealment, Attacker ambushed

    Defender shoots twice.

    Attacker 0 shots


    Hesitant :

    Defender shoots first,

    Attacker second

    Defender shoots again



    Attacker shoots,

    Defender shoots


    Firefight :

    Attacker shoots

    Defender shoots twice

    Attacker shoots


    Surprised :

    Attacker shoots twice

    Defender shoots


    Ambushed :

    Attacker shoots twice

    Defender 0 shots

    Example 1:  A Veteran Fanatic unit (CP = 6) on Engage orders (+0)
    attacks a 2nd rate reserve Division (CP = 4) on Defend orders
    (-1).  Roll 1D6 +1

    1 in 6 chance that the defender shoots first.

    1 in 3 chance that the defender is ambushed and wont return fire at all

    1 in 2 chance of getting in more shots than the defender.

    Example 2:  A regular unit (CP = 5) is ordered to probe (+1) a
    position held by an Elite paratroop unit (CP = 7) on defend orders
    (-1). Roll 1D6 -2

    1 in 2 chance of the attacker getting ambushed and shot up twice
    without returning a shot

    1 in 6 chance of getting in 2 shots against the defender's 1 shot

    4.6    Assault Combat

    Assault combat occurs when the attacking player attempts to enter an
    enemy occupied sector, which is denoted by placing units on the border
    between 2 sectors.

    Although each sector can contain up to 6 units, only 3 of these units
    can be committed to an assault across a sector boundary.

    It is however possible to assault a sector from more than 1 side, in
    which case up to 3 units per direction can be employed.

    Calculate Combat Factors :

    1. To initiate an assault first costs 2 Divisional PIPs by the
      attacking side.

    2. To assault into a sector that is already being assaulted from
      another direction costs 1 Divisional PIP.

    3. The attacking player nominates which of the units will lead the
      assault. The other units are supporting units.

    4. The defending player then nominates which defending unit will
      lead the defence. Any other units in the defending sector are
      supporting units.
    5. Calculate the attacker's combat factor vs the leading defender.
      Add bonuses for supporting units and troop type.

    6. Calculate the defenders combat factor vs the leading attacker.
      Add bonuses for supporting units and troop type.

    7. Attacker may add indirect fire bonuses for units in the sector
      where the assault is launched from (Hv MG, Mortar, etc)
    8. Attacker and Defender may add indirect fire from other sectors in
      range (artillery support), at the cost of 1 Divisional PIP per sector.
    9. Ground attack aircraft add +2 to the combat factor. 
      (See rules on Corps level aviation support and AA fire before adding
      this in)

    We now have an attacker combat factor, and a defender combat factor.

    Assault Procedure :

    1. Assault Battalions on the attack get 2 attacks first. All other
      types of attacking troops get 1 first attack.

    2. Attacker rolls first, D10 <= combat factor = 1 Hit. Natural
      roll of 0 = attack falters, assault stalls.  Attacking units are
      left on the border between sectors, and may continue the assault next
      phase of the day.
    3. If defending sector has any remaining Digs, these are removed
      first before casualties are taken.

    4. Defender rolls D10 <= CP rating to survive the Hit. Natural
      roll of 0 = On fail, unit is dispersed. If the defender is in a city
      sector, it may instead withdraw to an adjacent friendly city sector
      rather than be disbursed. Makes large cities very difficult to take.

    4.7    Indirect fire support (Artillery / Mortar /

    Each Division level formation will usually include a number of smaller
    support elements - HMG companies, and mortar companies, as well as
    'Infantry Gun' companies to support the main ground troops.

    In many cases too, small Tank companies are attached to infantry
    Divisions to provide mobile fire support - sort of like an SP Infantry
    Gun. These should be treated as such in the game.

    Indirect fire support is applied to the combat factor of any unit
    engaging in either ranged fire or assault combat.  Each fire
    support unit in range of the enemy adds a simple +1 to the fire factor
    of the attacking unit.

    Artillery and Mortars can add indirect supporting fire against all

    Heavy MG units can only add indirect supporting fire against
    non-armoured targets.

    Counter-battery fire.  When firing, each enemy indirect fire
    weapon in range of your indirect fire weapons cancels out the attack
    bonus, on a 1:1 basis.

    Infantry Battalions - if there are 3 or more infantry battalions in a
    sector, they may combine their fire power to provide long range
    harrassment fire, giving a single +1 indirect fire bonus vs any target
    type on any ranged fire to other units in their sector. This is
    allowed, even though the individual infantry battalions do not have
    range to hit the enemy.  This applies only to ranged fire -
    combined infantry battalions cannot contribute to assault combat in
    this way.

    Corps level fire support (heavy artillery / rocket batteries, etc), can
    also be added to the indirect fire support factors for any ranged
    combat of subordinate units, at a cost of 1 Corps level PIP.

    Example 1:


    Infantry Infantry Infantry

    Infantry Tank Tank

    Infantry Tank ATGun

    HMG Mortar

    Artillery Artillery Artillery

    In this example, the Blue force tank and AT gun units conduct ranged
    fire against the opposing Red force in the adjacent sector.

    Blue Force has 3 artillery units in range of the Red force sector. Red
    force has 1 artillery unit in range of the Blue force artillery.
    These cancel each other out, leaving Blue force with 2 Artillery for
    fire support .. or +2.

    Blue Force also has a Heavy MG unit, and a Mortar unit to add to the
    fire support.

    Blue AT gun fires on the Red tank unit, with support of 1 artillery
    units, and the mortar team. The Heavy MG unit cannot assist against
    armour. This gives the Blue AT gun a +2 to their combat factor vs
    armoured targets (5) for a total of 7.  70% chance of the AT guns
    forcing a result on the Red force tanks each time they shoot during
    this combat.

    Blue force tank fires at the other Red force tank, and uses the
    remaining artillery unit for support. Combat factor vs tanks = 5, +1
    for fire support = 6. 60% chance of the Blue tanks causing battle
    damage on the Red force tanks each time they shoot during this combat.

    The Heavy MG unit is not used, so it conducts ranged fire against one
    of the Red force infantry units. Combat factor vs soft targets  =
    3, so 30% chance of scoring a hit each time they shoot during this

    Total cost in Divisional PIPs for this combat is 2 PIPs ... 1 PIP
    allows all Blue force units in the front sector to fire (including the
    mortar as fire support), and an additional PIP for the artillery
    sector.   If the Divisional artillery was dispersed across
    multiple sectors, this would cost more to involve all of the artillery

    After the Blue Force fires, Red Forcee receives an opportunity to
    return fire, provided that it's orders comply with this. If it is on
    Probe, Engage, Attack, Support or Reserve orders, it must return fire
    at a cost of 1 PIP per sector of units firing.  If it is on Defend
    orders, it may return fire for free.  If it is on Move orders, it
    is considereed ambushed and will not return effective fire.

    4.8    Air superiority

    4.9    Air to Ground attacks

    4.10    Anti Aircraft fire

    4.11    Airborne Assault